Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth (periodontium). They are one of
the widely distributed diseases among the populations.
Diseased periodontium appear reddish-blush in color, swollen and bleeds easily during brushing. In addition, there may be presence of plaque, calculus, pockets, recession, bone loss, and/or mobility of teeth.
The main causes of periodontal diseases are the presence of the plaque around teeth necks, accumulation of calculi and other factors as smoking and having systemic diseases as diabetes and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Some periodontal diseases are transmitted through families and associated with abnormal host defense mechanisms.
Treatment of periodontal disease must be done to control plaque accumulation to preserve the teeth, get rid from halitosis (mal-mouth odor) and maintain the cardiovascular health.